Finding Your Ideal Weight

What is an ideal weight for my age and height? It’s a common health question, and with this piece we shall answer it!

You need to think about your body’s makeup to get a correct idea of what your ideal weight is supposed to be – what amount of your total bodyweight is bone and muscle fibres, and what percentage of it is body fat. A healthy total fat percentage is at most 29% of total bodyweight for women and 21% of total body weight for men.

What you should not do is compare your weight to your friends & family to establish your ideal weight, as it varies hugely from person to person.

BMI is a calculation between your weight in kilos in comparison with your height. It works by fractioning your bodyweight by your tallness in meters squared. As an example if a woman measured 1.75m high and weighed in at 75kg, the square of their height would work out to be 3.06, and 75/3.06 would leave them with a BMI rating of 24.51.

Anyone with a BMI above 31.5 is diagnosed to be obese. Many health groups across the planet agree that men and women with a BMI of less than 18.7 are regarded weighing excessively little, a BMI ranging from 19.8 to 25.4 is healthy, and that someone with a BMI between 26.4 and 29.9 is deemed to be overweight.

Some people think that Body Mass Index (BMI) is the best method to find your ideal body weight, but some say BMI is untrustworthy because it does not take into account how much muscle tissue you have and that hip-waist ratio is a much more accurate guideline.

Despite what they do, some people just don’t appear able to manage to put on weight. If This may be an issue with your body rather than your diet, and you should see a doctor if this is what you experience.

An effective workout schedule and a healthy diet will usually fix the issue of being above your healthy weight. Avoid carbohydrates in the evenings, and try not to have meals that are high in saturated fat. A decent carbohydrate-packed breakfast like porridge can also help you maintain a steady source of energy throughout the day, which reduces the desire to snack in between mealtimes.

Filtering Harmful Antibiotics From Water By Harnessing Solar-Powered Proteins

University of Cincinnati researchers have developed and tested a solar-powered nano filter that is able to remove harmful carcinogens and antibiotics from water sources – lakes and rivers – at a significantly higher rate than the currently used filtering technology made of activated carbon.

In the journal Nano Letters, Vikram Kapoor, environmental engineering doctoral student, and David Wendell, assistant professor of environmental engineering, report on their development and testing of the new filter made of two bacterial proteins that was able to absorb 64 percent of antibiotics in surface waters vs. about 40 percent absorbed by the currently used filtering technology made of activated carbon. One of the more exciting aspects of their filter is the ability to reuse the antibiotics that are captured.

Kapoor and Wendell began development of their new nano filter in 2010 and testing in 2012, with the results reported in a paper titled “Engineering Bacterial Efflux Pumps for Solar-Powered Bioremediation of Surface Waters.”

The presence of antibiotics in surface waters is harmful in that it breeds resistant bacteria and kills helpful microorganisms, which can degrade aquatic environments and food chains. In other words, infectious agents like viruses and illness-causing bacteria become more numerous while the health of streams and lakes degrades.

So, according to Wendell, the newly developed nano filters, each much smaller in diameter than a human hair, could potentially have a big impact on both human health and on the health of the aquatic environment (since the presence of antibiotics in surface waters can also affect the endocrine systems of fish, birds and other wildlife).

Surprisingly, this filter employs one of the very elements that enable drug-resistant bacteria to be so harmful, a protein pump called AcrB. Wendell explained, “These pumps are an amazing product of evolution. They are essentially selective garbage disposals for the bacteria. Our innovation was turning the disposal system around. So, instead of pumping out, we pump the compounds into the proteovesicles.” (The new filtering technology is called a proteovesicle system.)

One other important innovation was the power source, a light-driven bacterial protein called Delta-rhodopsin which supplies AcrB with the pumping power to move the antibiotics.

The bacterial protein system has a number of advantages over present filtration technology:

The operation of the new filtering technology is powered by direct sunlight vs. the energy-intensive needs for the operation of the standard activated carbon filter.
The filtering technology also allows for antibiotic recycling. After these new nano filters have absorbed antibiotics from surface waters, the filters could be extracted from the water and processed to release the drugs, allowing them to be reused. On the other hand, carbon filters are regenerated by heating to several hundred degrees, which burns off the antibiotics.
The new protein filters are highly selective. Currently used activated carbon filters serve as “catch alls,” filtering a wide variety of contaminants. That means that they become clogged more quickly with natural organic matter found in rivers and lakes.

Said Wendell, “So far, our innovation promises to be an environmentally friendly means for extracting antibiotics from the surface waters that we all rely on. It also has potential to provide for cost-effective antibiotic recovery and reuse. Next, we want to test our system for selectively filtering out hormones and heavy metals from surface waters.”

In relation to the work published in this paper, Wendell and Kapoor tested their solar-powered nano filter against activated carbon, the present treatment technology standard outside the lab. They tested their innovation in water collected from the Little Miami River. Using only sunlight as the power source, they were able to selectively remove the antibiotics ampicillin and vancomycin, commonly used human and veterinary antibiotics, and the nucleic acid stain, ethidium bromide, which is a potent carcinogen to humans and aquatic animals.

New Technique To Identify Patients At High Risk Of Stroke

Stroke is the leading cause of death among young cardiac patients receiving support through extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

When a patient can’t sustain sufficient oxygen levels in their blood, because of conditions such as heart failure, ECMO is sometimes required. It is only used when traditional therapies fail to work.

ECMO works by carrying blood from the patient through the machine where it directly oxygenates and removes carbon dioxide from the blood – it is conventionally used for both respiratory and cardiac failure.

Researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, found a potential role for ECMO to save patients who are unable to be resuscitated through conventional measures.

However, there is an increased risk of bleeding in the brain associated with ECMO. Only 36% of patients survive this complication.

Nicole O’Brien, MD, lead author of the study and associate professor of clinical medicine at The Ohio State University College of Medicine, said:

“Most of these patients are critically ill before they go on ECMO and often have low oxygen levels, low blood pressure and poor heart function, all of which can certainly lead to strokes. Still, some patients develop problems and others don’t and we don’t understand why.”

Researchers at the Nationwide Children’s Hospital conducted a study that measured cerebral blood flow using a transcranial doplar ultrasound machine, that uses sound-waves to measure the amount and speed of blood flow in the brain.

Changes in blood flow in the brain occur in all patients on ECMO. However, the researchers wanted to find out why some patients experience medical complications while others don’t.

A total of 18 ECMO patients had their cranial blood flows measured. The researchers measured the blood flow on their first day on the machine, as well as each day they were on the treatment and after the therapy.

There were major differences between the cerebral blood flow rates of the ECMO patients compared to healthy children of the same age.

Thirteen of the patients didn’t develop any neurologic complications while on ECMO, their cerebral blood flow was 40 percent to 50 percent lower than normal.

However, five of the ECMO patients suffered from either stroke or brain hemorrhage, with their cerebral blood flow being 100 percent higher than normal.

Factors such as age or any underlying illness didn’t make any difference.

The team pointed out that an increase in blood flow had started days before bleeding in the brain began. “(This) could give us a lot of lead time to prevent the brain bleeds or hemorrhages.”
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Healthy Habits Linked To Reduced Memory Loss

A national poll, which included a total of 18,552 people, was conducted by UCLA researchers and the Gallup organization. The participants were asked questions about their memory as well as their lifestyle.

The five questions asked were:

Do you smoke?
Did you eat healthy all day yesterday?
In the last seven days, on how many days did you have five or more servings of vegetables and fruits?
In the last seven days, on how many days did you exercise for 30 minutes or more?
Do you have any problems with your memory?

Healthy eating, not smoking, and regular exercise were linked to better self-perceived memory abilities.

Younger adults between the age of 18 to 39 were less likely to report engaging in healthy behaviors compared to older adults above the age of 60.

According to the study’s first author, Dr. Gary Small, director of the UCLA Longevity Center and a professor of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA who holds the Parlow Solomon Chair on Aging:

“These findings reinforce the importance of educating young and middle-aged individuals to take greater responsibility for their health – including memory – by practicing positive lifestyle behaviors earlier in life.”

The findings of the study, which were published in the journal International Psychogeriatrics, could have a significant impact on future research of memory complaints.

The researchers carried out telephone interviews with the participants, they even carried out interviews in Spanish to fully “capture a representative 90 percent of the U.S. population”.

Senior author Fernando Torres-Gil, a professor at UCLA’s Luskin School of Public Affairs and associate director of the UCLA Longevity Center, said that the people who reported the healthiest lifestyle behaviors were the ones least likely to report problems with their memory.

People who only engaged in one healthy behavior were 21 percent less likely to report memory problems, those who engaged in two were 45 percent less likely, and adults who engaged in more than three positive behaviors were far less likely to report memory problems.

Seventy percent of the older adults engaged in at least one healthy behavior compared to only 61 percent of middle-aged adults and 58 percent of younger adults.
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